Exam Preparation

CHAPTER 2 COAL AND PETROLEUM

 

COAL AND PETROLEUM

 
NATURAL RESOURCES 
The things which are obtained from nature are called as natural.resources.
 
TYPES OF RESOUCES
 
FOSSIL FUELS 
Exhaustible natural resouces like coal,petroleum and natural gas ,these are formed from the deas remains of living organisms (fossils). These are known as FOSSIL FUELS.
 
COAL 
It is hard as stone.
It is black in color.
 
Uses of coal
It is :- 
used to cook food.
used in railway engines to produce steam
used in thermal power plants to produce electricity.
used as fuel in various industries.
 
CARBONISATION
Coal contains carbon,the process conversion of dead vegetation into coal.
This process is very slow.
Coal is also called as fossil fuel.
 
COAL MINE 
When coal burns it produce mainly co2 gas.
 
It consists of: 
 
COKE 
It is tough, porous and black substance.
It is the pure form of carbon.
It is used in manufacture of steel and extraction of metals.
 
COAL TAR 
It is black in color.
It is a thick liquid with an unpleasant smell.
The products of coal tar are used in manufacture of various substances like dyes,drugs,perfumes,explosices,plastics,paints,photographic materials,roofing materilas etc.
 
 
COAL GAS 
It is obtained from the processing of coal to get coke.
It is used as a fuel in industries.
 
 
PETROLEUM 
We use petrol and diesel for our vehicles,these are obtained from a natural resource called Petroleum.
 
 
PETROLEUM FORMS:- 
when orgainisms die they got settled dowm at the bottom of the sea nad got covered by sand and clay.
After million yeras,in absence of air,high temperature and high pressure they get transformed into petroleum and natural gas.
 
REFINERY OF PETROLEUM 
Petroleum is a dark oily liquid.
It has an unplaesamt odour.
It is a mixture of various constituents as petroleum gas,petrol,diesel,lubricating oil,paraffin wax etc.
This process of separating these constituents is known as REFINING.
 
NATURAL GAS 
One of the most important resource.
It is easily tranportable.
It is stored under high pressure as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas).  
It is used in power generation